Cigarette smoking and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort. Eur J Cancer 26 7 : — Published by Oxford University Press. Risk was elevated in smokers, particularly in those without a family history or late menarche. Alcohol is a potentially strong confounder owing to its strong relationships with smoking Moore et al, and breast cancer risk Hamajima et al, ; Dumitrescu and Shields, Br J Cancer 93 3 : — Among ever smokers, the majority of lung cancers World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Furthermore, the NLST, which used the year threshold, is the only published trial demonstrating a mortality benefit for lung cancer screening with LDCT 26

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    Lifetime Smoking History and Risk of Lung Cancer Results From the Framingham Heart Study

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    While early prospective studies reported a mixture of positive Hiatt and Fireman, and null Hiatt et al, ; Schatzkin et al, ; Engeland et al, ; Nordlund et al, associations, more recent cohort studies have reported positive associations, with relative risks ranging from 1.

    This paper was modified 12 months after initial publication to switch to Creative Commons licence terms, as noted at publication.

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    We found no evidence that these factors influenced the results. Associations between smoking status and risk were similar when we compared the first 5 years of follow-up with the second 5 years, suggesting that changes that may have occurred during follow-up did not affect relative risks.

    Limitations of published data leave important questions about the time course and magnitude of lung cancer risk reduction in former smokers. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Discussion In this prospective community-based sample with a median follow-up time of almost 30 years, among ever smokers with at least median


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    J Natl Cancer Inst 81 1 : 31— To avoid carrying forward potentially inaccurate smoking information, participants were censored after a single missed exam plus an additional year without an update ie, five years for the Original cohort and nine years for the Offspring cohort.

    These differences were more pronounced for current rather than former smoking.

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    In another, smoking-associated risk was stronger among women without a family history of breast cancer when compared with women with a family history Reynolds et al, In this prospective community-based sample with a median follow-up time of almost 30 years, among ever smokers with at least median

    Gerald Zernig, Alois Saria, Martin Kurz, Stephanie O'Malley Zhang, Y., Kreger, B.E., Dorgan, J.F., Splansky G.L., Cupples L.A., and Ellison, R.C., Alcohol Hardy, C.J., Palmer, B.P., Muir, K.R., Sutton, A.J., and Powell, R.J., Smoking history.

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    These differences were more pronounced for current rather than former smoking. The association between current shown in A and former B smoking and breast cancer risk, in comparison to never smoking, is shown stratified by known breast cancer risk factors.

    Using smoking status or the combination of smoking status and cumulative pack-years as time-varying covariates, we implemented Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate unadjusted cause-specific hazard ratios for lung cancer comparing former and current smokers with never smokers. Type of menopause was determined from the reason menstrual periods stopped, whether the ovaries had been removed, and age at last menstrual period.

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    Lung cancer risk reduction after smoking cessation: Observations from a prospective cohort of women. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr.


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    In three cases, a pathology report was unavailable, in which case clinical diagnoses or death certificates were used as confirming evidence.

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    Smoking-associated risks differed according to family history of breast cancer, where increased risks were only observed among women without a family history. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose CT—translating science into Medicare coverage policy.

    We were unable to evaluate the relationship between age at smoking initiation and risk in this cohort, or the effect of smoking initiation in relation to menarche or first birth.